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2017年10月5日雅思阅读考试回忆及解析

2017-10-11 14:38:12 来源:网络雅思资料下载

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  一、考试概述:

  本次考试的阅读部分共三篇文章,均为旧题。第一篇讲了本文是关于食品促销对儿童影响的研究综述,研究结果有两方面:食品促销对儿童影响的程度和性质;该促销对儿童的食品知识、喜好和饮食行为所产生的影响。电视广告对儿童饮食习惯以及营养概念产生了影响,现在向儿童推广的食品主要是有趣、新奇或者好吃的东西,而不是健康有营养的食物。后面对小孩子是否真的会受到食品宣传的影响进行了一些讨论。最后在作者自身看来,是可以得出“影响是存在的”的结论的。而且现在关注的焦点应该转移到需要采取什么行动.以及具体怎样的商业营销来改善年轻人的饮食问题。第二篇讲了照相技术。第三篇讲了垃圾循环处理系统。

  二、具体题目分析

  Passage 1:

  题目:Children and advertising

  题型:段落大意题7 + 判断 6

  题号:旧题

  参考文章:待补充

Children and Advertising

  This review was commissioned by the Food Standards Agency to examine the current research evidence on: . the extent and nature of food promotion to children. The effect, if any, that this promotion has on their food knowledge, preferences and behavior.

  A. Children' s food promotion is dominated by television advertising, and the great majority of this promotes the so—called ''Big Four" of pre—sugared breakfast cereals, soft—drinks, confectionary and savory snacks. In the last ten years advertising for fast food outlets has rapidly increased. There is some evidence that the dominance of television has recently begun to wane. The importance of strong, global branding reinforces, a need for multi—faceted communications combining television with merchandising, tie—ins and point of sale activity. The advertised diet contrasts sharply with that recommended by public health advisors, and themes of fun and fantasy or taste, rather than health and nutrition, axe used to promote it to children. Meanwhile, the recommended diet gets little promotional support.

  B. There is plenty of evidence that children notice and enjoy food promotion. However, establishing whether this actually influences them is a complex problem. The review tackled it by looking at studies that had examined possible effects on what children know about food, their food preferences, their actual food behavior (both buying and eating), and their health outcomes (e. g. obesity or cholesterol levels). The majority of studies examined food advertising, but a few examined other forms of food promotion. In terms of nutritional knowledge, food advertising seems to have little influence on children' s general perceptions of what constitutes a healthy diet, but, in certain contexts, it does have an effect on more specific types of nutritional knowledge. For example, seeing soft drink and cereal adverts reduced primary aged children' s ability to determine correctly whether or not certain products contained real fruit.

  C. The review also found evidence that food promotion influences children' s food preferences and their purchase behavior. A study of primary school children, for instance, found that exposure to advertising influenced which foods they claimed to like; and another showed that label ling and signage on a vending machine has an effect on what was bought by secondary school pupils. A number of studies have also show that food advertising can influenced a primary class' s choice of daily snack at playtime.

  D. The next step, of trying to establish whether or not a link exists between food promotion and diet or obesity, is extremely difficult as it requires research to be done in real world settings. A number of studies have attempted this by using amount of television view as a proxy for exposure to television advertising. They have established a clear link between television viewing and diet, obesity, and cholesterol levels. It is impossible to say, however, whether this effect is caused by the advertising, the sedentary nature of television viewing or snacking that might take place whilst viewing. One study resolved this problem by taking a detailed diary of children' s viewing habits. This showed that the more food adverts they saw, the more snacks and calories they consumed.

  E. Thus the literature does suggest food promotion is influencing children' s diet in a nu_mber of ways. This does not amount to proof; as noted above with this kind of research, incontrovertible proof simply isn't. attainable. Nor do all studies point to this conclusion; several have not found an effect. In addition, very few studies have attempted to measure how strong these effects axe relative to other factors influencing children' s food choices. Nonetheless, many studies have found clear effects and they have used sophisticated methodologies that make it possible to determine that

  i) these effects are not just due to chance;

  ii) they are independent of other factors that may influence diet, such as parents

  eating habits or attitudes; and

  iii) they occur at a brand and category level.

  F. Furthermore, two factors suggest that these findings actually develop the effect that food production has on children. First, the literature focuses principally on television advertising; the cumulative effect of this combined with other forms of promotion and marketing is likely to be significantly greater. Second, the studies have looked at direct effects on individual children, and understate indirect influences. For example, promotion for fast food outlets may not only influence the child, but also encourage parents to take them for meals and reinforce the idea that this is a normal and desirable behavior.

  G. This does conclude that an how the power of not amount to proof of an effect, effect exists. The debate should commercial marketing can be used but in our view does provide sufficient evidence to now shift to what action is needed, and specifically to bring about improvements in young people' s eating.

  答案:

  1. vii

  2. ii

  3. vi

  4. v

  5. i

  6. x

  7. iii

  8. No

  9. No

  10.Yes

  11.Not given

  12.Yes

  13.Not given

  (答案仅供参考)

  Passage 2:

  题目:照相技术

  题目:旧题

  参考文章暂无

  Passage 3:

  题名:垃圾循环利用系统

  题目:新题

  参考文章:暂无


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