文章题目：Reef Fish Study(关于岩礁鱼的研究)
介绍了reef fish的三个生命阶段，并且介绍了bigger means better的理论，以及该理论(体型越大越占优势)对于被捕食者和捕食者是否适用。
3. NOT GIVEN
5. mouth size
7. artificial light
10. new moon
11. fish body
12. open ocean
文章题目：Corporate Social Responsibility(企业社会责任)
文章介绍了企业社会责任是如何帮助企业解决面临的各种问题，并且促进了企业和社会的相互依赖的关系。举例了三个公司(GE, Microsoft和Whole Food Market)如何在日常运营中提现中企业社会责任。
21. equal opportunity
22. internal costs
可参考真题：C13T2P3：MAKING THE MOST OF TRENDS
Corporate Social Responsibility
The moral appeal---arguing that companies have a duty to be good citizens and to “do the right thing”---is prominent in the goal of Business for Social Responsibility, the leading nonprofit CSR business association in the United States.
A An excellent definition was developed in the 1980s ‘‘Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The notion of license to operate derives from the fact that every company needs tacit or explicit permission from governments, communities, and numerous other stakeholders to do business. Finally, reputation is used by many companies to justify CSR initiatives on the grounds that they will improve a company’s image, strengthen its brand， enliven morale, and even raise the Value of its stock.
B To advance CSR, we must root it in a broad understanding of the interrelationship between a corporation and society. To say broadly that business and society need each other might seem like a cliché, but it is also the basic truth that will pull companies out of the muddle that their current corporate-responsibility thinking has created. Successful corporations need a healthy society. Education, health care, and equal opportunity are essential to a productive workforce. Safe products and working conditions not only attract customers but lower the internal costs of accidents. Efficient utilization of land, water, energy, and other natural resources makes business more productive. Good government, the rule of Jaw, and property rights are essential for efficiency and innovation. Any business that pursues its ends at the expense of the society in which it operates will find its success to be illusory and ultimately temporary. At the same time, a health society needs successful companies. No social program can rival the business sector when it comes to creating the jobs, wealth, and innovation that improve standards of living and social conditions over time.
C A company’s impact on society also changes over time, as social standards evolve and science progresses. Asbestos, now understood as a serious health risk, was thought to be safe in the early 1900s, given the scientific knowledge then available. Evidence of its risks gradually mounted for more than 50 years before any company was held liable for the harms it can cause. Many firms that failed to anticipate the consequences of this evolving body of research have been bankrupt by the results. No longer can companies be content to monitor only the obvious social impacts of today. Without a careful process for identifying evolving social effects of tomorrow, firms may risk their very survival.
D No business can solve all of society’s problems or bear the cost of doing so. Instead, each company must select issues that intersect with its particular business. Corporations are not responsible for all the world's problems, nor do they have the resources to solve them all. Each company can identify the particular set of societal problems that it is best equipped to help resolve and from which it can gain the greatest competitive benefit. Addressing social issues by creating shared value will lead to self-sustaining solutions that do not depend on private or government subsidies. When a well-run business applies its vast resources, expertise, and management talent to problems that it understands and in which it has a stake, it can have a greater impact on social good than any other institution or philanthropic organization.
E The best corporate citizenship initiatives involve far more than writing a check: they specify clear, measurable goals and track results over time. A good example is GE’s program to adopt underperforming public high schools near several of its major U.S. Facilities. The company contributes between $250, 000 and $1 million over a five-year period to each school and makes in-kind donations as well GE managers and employees take an active role by working with school administrators to assess needs and mentor or tutor students. The graduation rate of these schools almost doubled during this time period. Effective corporate citizenship initiatives such as this one create goodwill and improve relations with local governments and other important constituencies. What’s more, GE’s employees feel great pride in their participation. Their effect is inherently limited though. No matter how beneficial the program is, it remains incidental to the company's business, and the direct effect on GE’s recruiting and retention is modest.
F Microsoft is a good example of a shared-value opportunity arising from investments in context. The shortage of information technology workers is a significant constraint on Microsoft’s growth, currently, there are more than 450,000 unfilled IT positions in the United States alone. Community colleges, representing 45% of all U.S . Undergraduates, could be a major solution. Microsoft recognizes, however, that community colleges face special challenges: IT curricula are not standardized, technology used in classrooms is often outdated, and there are no systematic professional development programs to keep faculty up to date. In addition to contributing money and products, Microsoft sent employee volunteers to colleges to assess needs, contribute to curriculum development, and create faculty development institutes. Note that in this case, volunteers and assigned staff were able to use their core professional skills to address a social need, a far cry from typical volunteer programs. Microsoft has achieved results that have benefited many communities while having a direct-and potentially significant-impact on the company.
G At the heart of any strategy is a unique value proposition: a set of needs a company can meet for its chosen customers that others cannot. The most strategic CSR occurs when a company adds a social dimension to its value proposition, making social impact integral to the overall strategy Consider Whole Foods Market, whose value proposition is to sell organic, natural, and healthy food products to customers who are passionate about food and the environment. Whole Foods’ commitment to natural and environmentally friendly operating practices extends well beyond sourcing. Stores are constructed using a minimum of virgin raw materials. Recently, the company purchased renewable wind energy credits equal to 100% of its electricity use in all of its stores and facilities, the only Fortune 500 Company to offset its electricity consumption entirely. Spoiled produce and biodegradable waste are trucked to regional centers for composting. Whole Foods’ vehicles are being converted to run on biofuels. Even the cleaning products used in its stores are environmentally friendly. And through its philanthropy, the company has created the Animal Compassion Foundation to develop more natural and humane ways of raising farm animals. In short, nearly every aspect of the company’s value chain reinforces the social dimensions of its value proposition, distinguishing Whole Foods from its competitors.
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