新东方在线网络课堂 雅思 新东方在线 > 雅思 > 雅思真题 > 雅思模拟题 > 正文

雅思阅读全真模拟题:幸福的科学解释

2017-05-30 10:30:00 来源:新东方在线雅思资料下载

微博用户专属

雅思

@新东方雅思考试

+关注免费送

¥1999
新东方内部资料

  新东方在线雅思网特为大家准备了雅思阅读全真模拟题:幸福的科学解释。雅思模拟试题在雅思备考过程中所起的作用不可小觑,通过模拟练习题,我们可以很直接地了解到自己的备考状况,从而可以更有针对性地进行之后的复习。希望以下内容能够对大家的雅思备考有所帮助!更多雅思报名官网的最新消息,最新、最专业的雅思备考资料,新东方在线雅思网将第一时间为大家发布。

  Can Scientists tell us: What happiness is?

  A

  Economists accept that if people describe themselves as happy, then they are happy. However, psychologists differentiate between levels of happiness. The most immediate type involves a feeling; pleasure or joy. But sometimes happiness is a judgment that life is satisfying, and does not imply an emotional state. Esteemed psychologist Martin Seligman has spearheaded an effort to study the science of happiness. The bad news is that we're not wired to be happy. The good news is that we can do something about it. Since its origins in a Leipzig laboratory 130 years ago, psychology has had little to say about goodness and contentment. Mostly psychologists have concerned themselves with weakness and misery. There are libraries full of theories about why we get sad, worried, and angry. It hasn't been respectable science to study what happens when lives go well. Positive experiences, such as joy, kindness, altruism and heroism, have mainly been ignored. For every 100 psychology papers dealing with anxiety or depression, only one concerns a positive trait.

  B

  A few pioneers in experimental psychology bucked the trend. Professor Alice Isen of Cornell University and colleagues have demonstrated how positive emotions make people think faster and more creatively. Showing how easy it is to give people an intellectual boost, Isen divided doctors making a tricky diagnosis into three groups: one received candy, one read humanistic statements about medicine, one was a control group. The doctors who had candy displayed the most creative thinking and worked more efficiently. Inspired by Isen and others, Seligman got stuck in. He raised millions of dollars of research money and funded 50 research groups involving 150 scientists across the world. Four positive psychology centres opened, decorated in cheerful colours and furnished with sofas and baby-sitters. There were get-togethers on Mexican beaches where psychologists would snorkel and eat fajitas, then form "pods" to discuss subjects such as wonder and awe. A thousand therapists were coached in the new science.

  C

  But critics are demanding answers to big questions. What is the point of defining levels of happiness and classifying the virtues? Aren't these concepts vague and impossible to pin down? Can you justify spending funds to research positive states when there are problems such as famine, flood and epidemic depression to be solved? Seligman knows his work can be belittled alongside trite notions such as "the power of positive thinking". His plan to stop the new science floating "on the waves of self- improvement fashions" is to make sure it is anchored to positive philosophy above, and to positive biology below.

  D

  And this takes us back to our evolutionary past. Homo sapiens evolved during the Pleistocene era (1.8 m to 10,000 years ago), a time of hardship and turmoil. It was the Ice Age, and our ancestors endured long freezes as glaciers formed, then ferocious floods as the ice masses melted. We shared the planet with terrifying creatures such as mammoths, elephant-sized ground sloths and sabre-toothed cats. But by the end of the Pleistocene, all these animals were extinct. Humans, on the other hand, had evolved large brains and used their intelligence to make fire and sophisticated tools, to develop talk and social rituals. Survival in a time of adversity forged our brains into a persistent mould. Professor Seligman says: "Because our brain evolved during a time of ice, flood and famine, we have a catastrophic brain. The way the brain works is looking for what's wrong. The problem is, that worked in the Pleistocene era. It favoured you, but it doesn't work in the modem world."

  E

  Although most people rate themselves as happy, there is a wealth of evidence to show that negative thinking is deeply ingrained in the human psyche. Experiments show that we remember failures more vividly than successes. We dwell on what went badly, not what went well. Of the six universal emotions, four anger, fear, disgust and sadness are negative and only one, joy, is positive. The sixth, surprise, is psychologist Daniel Nettle, author of Happiness, and one of the Royal Institution lecturers, the negative emotions each tell us "something bad has happened" and suggest a different course of action.

  F

  What is it about the structure of the brain that underlies our bias towards negative thinking? And is there a biology of joy? At Iowa University, neuroscientists studied what happens when people are shown pleasant and unpleasant pictures. When subjects see landscapes or dolphins playing, part of the frontal lobe of the brain becomes active. But when they are shown unpleasant images a bird covered in oil, or a dead soldier with part of his face missing the response comes from more primitive parts of the brain. The ability to feel negative emotions derives from an ancient danger-recognition system formed early in the brain's evolution. The pre-frontal cortex, which registers happiness, is the part used for higher thinking, an area that evolved later in human history.

  G

  Our difficulty, according to Daniel Nettle, is that the brain systems for liking and wanting are separate. Wanting involves two ancient regions the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens that communicate using the chemical dopamine to form the brain's reward system. They are involved in anticipating the pleasure of eating and in addiction to drugs. A rat will press a bar repeatedly, ignoring sexually available partners, to receive electrical stimulation of the "wanting" parts of the brain. But having received brain stimulation, the rat eats more but shows no sign of enjoying the food it craved. In humans, a drug like nicotine produces much craving but little pleasure.

  H

  In essence, what the biology lesson tells us is that negative emotions are fundamental to the human condition, and ifs no wonder they are difficult to eradicate. At the same time, by a trick of nature, our brains are designed to crave but never really achieve lasting happiness.

  Question 14-20

  The reading passage has seven paragraphs A-H.

  Which paragraph contains the following information?

  Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.

  14 An experiment involving dividing several groups one of which received positive icon

  15 Review of a poorly researched psychology area

  16 Contrast being made about the brain’s action as response to positive or negative stimulus

  17 The skeptical attitude toward the research seemed to be a waste of fund

  18 a substance that produces much wanting instead of much liking

  19 a conclusion that lasting happiness are hardly obtained because of the nature of brains

  20 One description that listed the human emotional categories

  Question 21-25

  Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than four words from the Reading Passage for each answer.

  Write your answers in boxes 21-25 on your answer sheet.

  A few pioneers in experimental psychology study what happens when lives go well. Professor Alice divided doctors, making a tricky experiment, into three groups: beside the one control group, the other two either are asked to read humanistic statements about drugs, or received …21... The latter displayed the most creative thinking and worked more efficiently. Since critics are questioning the significance of the …22…for both levels of happiness and classification for the virtues. Professor Seligman countered in an evolutional theory: survival in a time of adversity forged our brains into the way of thinking for what's wrong because we have a…23…

  There is bountiful of evidence to show that negative thinking is deeply built in the human psyche. Later, at Iowa University, neuroscientists studied the active parts in brains to contrast when people are shown pleasant and unpleasant pictures. When positive images like…24…are shown, part of the frontal lobe of the brain becomes active. But when they are shown unpleasant image, the response comes from …25…of the brain.

  Question 26

  Write your answers in boxes 26 on your answer sheet.

  Choose the correct letter. A, B, C or D.

  According to Daniel Nettle in the last two paragraphs, what is true as the scientists can tell us about happiness

  A Brain systems always mix liking and wanting together.

  B Negative emotions can be easily rid of if we think positively.

  C Happiness is like nicotine we are craving for but get little pleasure.

  D The inner mechanism of human brains does not assist us to achieve durable happiness.

本文关键字: 雅思阅读 雅思模拟题

为你特别匹配的雅思超值课程,快速提分先人一步!
  • 【知心雅思】雅思全能6.5分班(免费体验版)

    适合人群:雅思成绩目标6.5分的考生

    课时:227

    查看详情
  • 【知心雅思】雅思全能7分班(免费体验版)

    适合人群:雅思成绩目标7分的考生

    课时:227

    查看详情
  • 雅思新生预科班

    适合人群:需要提高雅思备考基本功的考生

    课时:55

    查看详情
  • 雅思核心1200词背诵

    适合人群:有背单词困难症的考生

    课时:44

    查看详情
  • 剑桥雅思真题集精讲解析(90天畅学)

    适合人群:任何阶段的雅思考生

    课时:120

    查看详情

课程试听换一换

  • 5天密训:雅思口语拯救计划

    ¥199

  • 【知心雅思】雅思全能7分旗舰外教VIP全程班

    ¥4880

  • 【暑期过雅思】屠鸭预备营

    ¥1

  • 【知心雅思】雅思全能7分VIP全程班

    ¥2480

  • 【知心雅思】雅思全能6.5分旗舰外教VIP全程班

    ¥4380

  • 【知心雅思】雅思全能6.5分VIP全程班

    ¥2180

  • 【知心雅思】雅思全能7分旗舰外教VIP长...

    ¥6880

  • 【知心雅思】 雅思全能7分直达班

    ¥1480

分享到:

相关推荐

版权及免责声明

1,"新东方在线"上的内容,包括文章、资料、资讯等, 本网注明"稿件来源:新东方在线"的,其版权 均为"新东方在线"或北京新东方迅程网络科技有限公司所有 ,任何公司、媒体、网站或个人未经授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用。已经得到 "新东方在线"许可 的媒体、网站,在使用时必须注明"稿件来源:新东方",违者本网站将依法追究责任。

2, "新东方在线" 未注明"稿件来源:新东方"的 文章、资料、资讯等 均为转载稿,本网站转载出于传递更多信息之目的,并不意味着赞同其观点或证实其内容的真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人从本网站下载使用,必须保留本网站注明的"稿件来源",并自负版权等法律责任。如擅自篡改为 " 稿件来源:新东方 " ,本网站将依法追究其法律责任。

3,如本网转载稿涉及版权等问题,请作者见稿后在两周内与新东方在线联系。

  • 雅思冲7分外教旗舰vip班
  • 英语词汇量测试
  • 2017雅思真题回忆及答案解析
  • 雅思口语全程备考攻略
  • 快速攻克雅思移民

热点资讯更多>>

实用 • 工具

雅思课程排行榜本周本月

交流 • 下载

雅思公开课更多>>

小明NENG雅思第一弹-有一个地方 w 17分30秒
1 小明NENG雅思第一弹-有一个地方
小明NENG雅思第五弹-宿醉2欢乐来袭 w 12分26秒
2 小明NENG雅思第五弹-宿醉2欢乐来袭
小明NENG雅思第四弹-宿醉1中的有趣表达 w 10分46秒
3 小明NENG雅思第四弹-宿醉1中的有趣表达
小明NENG雅思第十弹-跟小明听歌学口语 w 10分27秒
4 小明NENG雅思第十弹-跟小明听歌学口语
小明NENG雅思第三弹-搞怪电影里的地道表达 w 12分38秒
5 小明NENG雅思第三弹-搞怪电影里的地道表达

推荐阅读