新东方在线网络课堂 雅思 新东方在线 > 雅思 > 雅思阅读 > 正文

雅思阅读每日习题系列:Striking Back at Lightning

2017-10-06 15:59:00 来源:网络雅思资料下载

  雅思阅读考试关键在于多做多练,题目做的多了自然熟能生巧,今天新东方在线小编给大家分享一下雅思阅读每日习题系列:Striking Back at Lightning,每天一套题,提升你的雅思阅读能力,大家一起来学习吧。更多雅思阅读备考内容欢迎大家随时关注新东方在线雅思网

  Striking Back at Lightning

  With Lasers

  Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike. Their electrical fury inflicts death or serious injury on around 500 people each year in the United States alone. As the clouds roll in, a leisurely round of golf can become a terrifying dice with death — out in the open, a lone golfer may be a lightning bolt’s most inviting target. And there is damage to property too. Lightning damage costs American power companies more than $100 million a year.

  But researchers in the United States and Japan are planning to hit back. Already in laboratory trials they have tested strategies for neutralising the power of thunderstorms, and this winter they will brave real storms, equipped with an armoury of lasers that they will be pointing towards the heavens to discharge thunderclouds before lightning can strike.

  The idea of forcing storm clouds to discharge their lightning on command is not new. In the early 1960s, researchers tried firing rockets trailing wires into thunderclouds to set up an easy discharge path for the huge electric charges that these clouds generate. The technique survives to this day at a test site in Florida run by the University of Florida, with support from the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), based in California. EPRI, which is funded by power companies, is looking at ways to protect the United States’ power grid from lightning strikes. ‘We can cause the lightning to strike where we want it to using rockets,’ says Ralph Bernstein, manager of lightning projects at EPRI. The rocket site is providing precise measurements of lightning voltages and allowing engineers to check how electrical equipment bears up.

  Bad behaviour

  But while rockets are fine for research, they cannot provide the protection from lightning strikes that everyone is looking for. The rockets cost around $1,200 each, can only be fired at a limited frequency and their failure rate is about 40 per cent. And even when they do trigger lightning, things still do not always go according to plan. ‘Lightning is not perfectly well behaved,’ says Bernstein. ‘Occasionally, it will take a branch and go someplace it wasn’t supposed to go.’

  And anyway, who would want to fire streams of rockets in a populated area? ‘What goes up must come down,’ points out Jean-Claude Diels of the University of New Mexico. Diels is leading a project, which is backed by EPRI, to try to use lasers to discharge lightning safely — and safety is a basic requirement since no one wants to put themselves or their expensive equipment at risk. With around $500,000 invested so far, a promising system is just emerging from the laboratory.

  The idea began some 20 years ago, when high-powered lasers were revealing their ability to extract electrons out of atoms and create ions. If a laser could generate a line of ionisation in the air all the way up to a storm cloud, this conducting path could be used to guide lightning to Earth, before the electric field becomes strong enough to break down the air in an uncontrollable surge. To stop the laser itself being struck, it would not be pointed straight at the clouds. Instead it would be directed at a mirror, and from there into the sky. The mirror would be protected by placing lightning conductors close by. Ideally, the cloud-zapper (gun) would be cheap enough to be installed around all key power installations, and portable enough to be taken to international sporting events to beam up at brewing storm clouds.

  A stumbling block

  However, there is still a big stumbling block. The laser is no nifty portable: it’s a monster that takes up a whole room. Diels is trying to cut down the size and says that a laser around the size of a small table is in the offing. He plans to test this more manageable system on live thunderclouds next summer.

  Bernstein says that Diels’s system is attracting lots of interest from the power companies. But they have not yet come up with the 5millionthatEPRIsayswillbeneededtodevelopacommercialsystem,bymakingthelasersyetsmallerandcheaper.‘IcannotsayIhavemoneyyet,butI′mworkingonit,′saysBernstein.Hereckonsthattheforthcomingfieldtestswillbetheturningpoint—andhe′shopingforgoodnews.Bernsteinpredicts‘anavalancheofinterestandsupport‘ifallgoeswell.Heexpectstoseecloud−zapperseventuallycosting50,000 to $100,000 each.

  Other scientists could also benefit. With a lightning ‘switch’ at their fingertips, materials scientists could find out what happens when mighty currents meet matter. Diels also hopes to see the birth of ‘interactive meteorology’ — not just forecasting the weather but controlling it. ‘If we could discharge clouds, we might affect the weather,’ he says.

  And perhaps, says Diels, we’ll be able to confront some other meteorological menaces. ‘We think we could prevent hail by inducing lightning,’ he says. Thunder, the shock wave that comes from a lightning flash, is thought to be the trigger for the torrential rain that is typical of storms. A laser thunder factory could shake the moisture out of clouds, perhaps preventing the formation of the giant hailstones that threaten crops. With luck, as the storm clouds gather this winter, laser-toting researchers could, for the first time, strike back.

  Questions 1-3

  Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

  Write the correct letter in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

  1 The main topic discussed in the text is

  A the damage caused to US golf courses and golf players by lightning strikes.

  B the effect of lightning on power supplies in the US and in Japan.

  C a variety of methods used in trying to control lightning strikes.

  D a laser technique used in trying to control lightning strikes.

  2 According to the text, every year lightning

  A does considerable damage to buildings during thunderstorms.

  B kills or injures mainly golfers in the United States.

  C kills or injures around 500 people throughout the world.

  D damages more than 100 American power companies.

  3 Researchers at the University of Florida and at the University of New Mexico

  A receive funds from the same source.

  B are using the same techniques.

  C are employed by commercial companies.

  D are in opposition to each other.

  Questions 4-6

  Complete the sentences below.

  Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

  Write your answers in boxes 4-6 on your answer sheet.

  4 EPRI receives financial support from ..................... .

  5 The advantage of the technique being developed by Diels is that it can be used.....................

  6 The main difficulty associated with using the laser equipment is related to its.....................

  Questions 7-10

  Complete the summary using the list of words, A-I, below.

  Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.

  In this method, a laser is used to create a line of ionization by removing electrons from 7 ..................... . This laser is then directed at 8 ..................... in order to control electrical charges, a method which is less dangerous than using 9..................... . As a protection for the lasers, the beams are aimed firstly at 10 ..................... .

  A cloud-zappers B atoms C storm clouds

  D mirrors E technique F ions

  G rockets H conductors I thunder

  Questions 11-13

  Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

  In boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet write

  YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

  No if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

  NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

  11 Power companies have given Diels enough money to develop his laser.

  12 Obtaining money to improve the lasers will depend on tests in real storms.

  13 Weather forecasters are intensely interested in Diels’s system.

  下页是本篇阅读的答案解析:

本文关键字: 雅思阅读 雅思阅读习题

为你特别匹配的雅思超值课程,快速提分先人一步!
  • 【1元听直播】新东方名师公益课(第二季)

    适合人群:不知道如何高效备考,想要在短期考到7及7以上的考生。

    课时:10

    查看详情
  • 雅思机经高频词汇套装

    适合人群:为背单词枯燥而抓狂,又急需提高词汇量。

    课时:20

    查看详情
    -->
  • 考雅必备:10天练就纯正英音

    适合人群:想要纠正语音语调的考生

    课时:5

    查看详情
  • 【知心雅思】全科提高冲6.5分班

    适合人群:想要冲刺6.5分的考生

    课时:344

    查看详情
  • 雅思核心1200词背诵

    适合人群:有背单词困难症的考生

    课时:44

    查看详情

课程试听换一换

  • 【新东方名师直播】雅思暑期公益课(第1...

    ¥1

  • 【新东方名师直播】雅思暑期公益课(第2...

    ¥1

  • 【知心雅思】旗舰VIP直达 7 分班

    ¥5380

  • 【知心雅思】旗舰VIP直达 7 分班(基...

    ¥6379

  • 【知心雅思】旗舰VIP直达 6.5 分班

    ¥4880

  • 【知心雅思】全科提高冲 7 分班

    ¥3280

  • 【知心雅思】旗舰VIP直达 6.5分 班(...

    ¥5879

  • 【暑期特惠】新东方雅思全名师高分托管...

    ¥7880

分享到:

相关推荐

交流 • 下载

精品课限量免费领

  • 【新东方名师直播】雅思IELTS公益课(第二季)
  • 雅思考试指南
  • 雅思写作考官范文
  • 英国大学排名
  • 【知心雅思】旗舰VIP直达7分班
  • 雅思口语全程备考攻略

热点资讯更多>>

实用 • 工具

雅思课程排行榜本周本月

雅思公开课更多>>

雅思7分阅读--LOH题详解 w 00分00秒
1 雅思7分阅读--LOH题详解
雅思6分阅读--搭配题怎样解? w 00分00秒
2 雅思6分阅读--搭配题怎样解?
雅思6.5分阅读--做题时如何规划时间 w 00分00秒
3 雅思6.5分阅读--做题时如何规划时间
雅思7分写作--大作文的展开方式 w 00分00秒
4 雅思7分写作--大作文的展开方式
雅思6分写作--如何开始学习写作? w 00分00秒
5 雅思6分写作--如何开始学习写作?

推荐阅读